Valvular Disease

Pericardial Disease

Myocardial Disease

Congenital Disease

Miscellanous

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Ischemic Heart Disease

Definition

A narrowing of the coronary artery(s) sufficiently to prevent adequate blood supply to the myocardium (ischemia). This narrowing may progress to a point where heart muscle is damaged (infarction).

Etiology

Signs and Symptoms

Cardiac Catheterization

M-Mode

2-D

Note: Routine echocardiography tends to overlook coronary artery disease because the examination is performed while the patient is at rest, when the narrowed coronary arteries may still be able to provide adequate blood supply to the heart muscle. To better evaluate the presence and severity of coronary artery disease, a stress echocardiograrn should be performed

Complications of Myocardial Infarction:

Pericardial Effusion

It is a common acute response to acute myocardial infarction (about 30%). It may predict a more complex course.

Dressler's Syndrome

A delayed form of pericarditis: Post-infarction illness which manifests with fever, pericarditis, and pleuritis; may occur one week to several months after myocardial infarction. An autoimmune phenomenon- evaluate for pericardial effusion.

Left Ventricular True Aneurysm

Definition

A bulge that persists in diastole and systole with akinesia/ dyskinesia

Importance of Detection

Differential Diagnosis

Electrocardiogram

Persistent ST-T wave elevation

Chest X-ray

M-Mode

2-D

Doppler

Important to Note

A true aneurysm takes two to four weeks to develop. A true aneurysm may affect the left ventricular apex, interventricular septum, or inferior wall of the left ventricle; most commonly seen following anterior myocardial infarction with the aneurysm affecting the apex and septum.

 

Pseudoaneurysm

Definition

The free wall of the left ventricle ruptures and a hemopericardium is confined by the pericardium

Etiology

Importance of Detection

M-Mode

2-D

Doppler

 

Left Ventricular Thrombus

Types

2-D

Important to Note

Ventricular Septal Defect

Definition

A rupture of the interventricular septum

M-Mode

2-D

Doppler

Papillary Muscle Dysfunction

2-D

Doppler

Right Ventricular Infarction

Etiology

Signs and Symptoms

2-D

Doppler

 

 

Echocardiography Books