Valvular Disease

Pericardial Disease

Myocardial Disease

Congenital Disease

Miscellanous

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Mitral Regurgitation

Definition

The backward flow of blood into the left atrium during systole; may be acute or chronic.

Etiology

Any abnormality(s) of the mitral valve apparatus:

Signs and Symptoms

Complications

Cardiac Auscultation

Electrocardiogram

Chest X-ray

Cardiac Catheterization

Treatment

M - Mode

2-D

PW Doppler

CW Doppler

Color Flow Doppler

Guide for Quantitating the Severity of Mitral Regurgitation

Mild (grade 1+)

Moderate (grade 2+)

Moderately severe (grade 3+)

Severe (grade 4+)

 

 

Echocardiography Books